What is the meaning of OVERRUN?
What is Cylinder?

We would like to share the Ice Cream Industry Terms

How to Talk in Frozen Treat Terminology


Bacteria Count

The number of unwanted bacteria in the soft serve mix or the finished product. If the bacteria count in test samples taken by the health inspector exceeds the allowable limit, penalties can result, including suspension or total shutdown of the business.

Batch Freezer

A freezer designed to manufacture hard-pack ice cream. The mix is poured directly into the freezing cylinder and frozen to approximately 20° Fahrenheit. The product is then dispensed into a container that is placed in a flash freezer to bring the product to approximately 0° Fahrenheit. Also used for traditional Italian Ice (or water ice) and sherbet.

Beater Shaft

Located in the center of the freezing cylinder, the beater shaft supports the scraper blades. As the beater shaft rotates in the cylinder, the blades scrape frozen product from the cylinder and air is blended into the frozen product. The beater shaft in Gravity Fed Freezers pushes the frozen product from the cylinder as it rotates. The beater shaft is also referred to as an auger or dasher.

Butterfat/Milkfat Content

The percentage of dairy fat contained in the mix. A 6% butterfat mix, for example, contains 6 pounds of milkfat per 100 pounds. Product richness will normally increase as the butterfat content increases.

Buttering Out

If a high butterfat product like ice cream or custard is agitated excessively in the freezing cylinder, yellow flecks of butter may become apparent in the product. The result is an unattractive, coarse and grainy frozen product.


CAB Model

Any freezer that has a refrigerated storage area in the bottom portion of the machine. These freezers have a mix pump mounted in the refrigerated cabinet in the lower portion of the freezer.

CMT – RMT Model

Any freezer in the Electro Freeze Freedom 360 Series. These models feature the mix transfer system that is mounted in a refrigerated cabinet in the lower portion of the freezer.

Coliform Count/Coli Count

A common intestinal organism found in all warm-blooded animals. These bacteria can appear in the soft serve mix or finished product if the mix is improperly handled or if the freezer is not properly sanitized. This bacteria is the reason that health authorities insist that hands be thoroughly washed before handling food.

Combination Freezer

A freezer that has a soft-serve and a shake cylinder mounted in one frame.


A part of the system that circulates the refrigerant through the system. The compressor removes the refrigerant vapor from the evaporator and then compresses it, forcing liquid refrigerant through the expansion valve under pressure. This allows the refrigerant to absorb the heat in the evaporator.


The condenser cools the gas that has absorbed heat in the evaporator. Water-cooled condensers are constructed as a tube within a tube. Water flows in the inner tube and gas in the outer tube. The water absorbs the heat from the gas and the water is then discharged out a drain. Air-cooled condensers use copper tubing routed through rows of metal fins. Air is forced through the fins and the gas is cooled much like the radiator of an automobile cools water for the engine.


Direct Draw/Flavor Injected Shake Freezer

Shake freezers that inject and mix flavoring into the frozen shake as it is dispensed. CO2 or compressed air is used to push syrup from containers to the dispensing head. A valve meters the flow of syrup to the dispensing head. As a shake is dispensed, the syrup is thoroughly mixed into the frozen shake.

Dispensing Head/Head/Door

When the frozen product leaves the freezing cylinder, it passes through the dispensing head and is served in a cup, cone, etc. The dispensing head shapes the frozen product. A twist head allows the operator to dispense two flavors separately or combine the two flavors into a single serving.



An additive used in the mix to promote the mixing of fat and water. They increase the stability of overruns and allow the mix to hold air. The result is a drier, stiffer, smoother product.


The liquid mix is frozen in this area of the freezer. The evaporator in Electro Freeze machinery is a stainless-steel tube wrapped with copper tubing and then insulated. The gas expands in the evaporator and removes heat. This feature is unique to Electro Freeze machinery and is very efficient.

Expansion Valve

Controls the flow of refrigerant through the system. The refrigerant is under very high pressure when it reaches the expansion valve. The expansion valve restricts its flow, releasing it at low pressure that causes the liquid to expand and vaporize. This reaction creates the cold temperature that evenly freezes the mix in the evaporator.


Foot Pedal

An option for shake freezers, the shake side of combination freezers, and the Arctic Swirl. When the foot-switch is depressed, the mixer will run, allowing the operator hands-free operation.

Freedom 360 Series

Any cabinet model soft serve, shake or frozen custard freezer that uses the mix transfer system.

Frozen Cocktail

A frozen drink made with either neutral base or ready to serve drinks like margaritas, strawberry daiquiris, or Pina Coladas, dispensed from a frozen cocktail freezer. Alcohol is dispensed with the mixture in the machine, or after the drink is dispensed, depending on state law.

Frozen Custard

A frozen soft-serve product of 10% or higher butterfat content and includes egg yolk solids, milk solids, sugar, and stabilizer. Because of its high butterfat content, the custard is best when served from a pressurized freezer.



The Italian word for ice cream. It is usually served as a heavy, creamy product. Gelato is usually 5%-6% butterfat and has an overrun of 30%-40%. This product is manufactured in a batch freezer.

Gravity-Fed Freezer

Freezers where the mix and airflow by gravity from the hopper to the cylinder. These freezers are equipped with mix feed tubes in the place of mix pumps. Gravity-fed freezers normally dispense frozen products at warmer temperatures and lower overruns than pressurized freezers.


Hard Pack

Any frozen dessert described as “hard pack” is manufactured in a batch freezer, dispensed into a container and frozen to approximately 0° Fahrenheit. The frozen product is dipped by hand and then served to the customer.

Hopper Models

Freezers that have mix reservoirs on the top.


Ice Cream

Ice cream is a dairy product that contains 10% or more butterfat.

Ice Milk

Ice milk is a dairy product with less than 10% butterfat.

Italian Ice

A non-dairy product often referred to as water ice and is a blend of corn syrup, fruit, and citrus juice. When served from an Electro Freeze Soft Serve Machine, it has the same texture and appearance as ice cream.


Kosher or Parve Product

A non-dairy product containing 8% – 10% fat. These products do not contain animal fat but have vegetable oils, solids, and stabilizers obtained from a vegetable source.



A general term that refers to any mixture designed for use in soft serve, shake, slush, frozen cocktail, and batch freezers. These include both dairy and non-dairy products in either liquid or powdered form. The mix comes packaged in cartons, bags, boxes, cans, etc.

Mix Containers

Mix containers are standard for all CMT-RMT Freezers. Mix containers are placed in the refrigerated cabinet and mix is stored in them. Two 6-gallon mix containers may be placed in double-head machines. Single-head freezers have room for one 6-gallon container.

Mix Feed

Located in the hopper of gravity-fed shake or soft serve freezers. The mix feed is used to meter the flow of mix and air from the hopper to the freezing cylinder.

Mix Level Indicator

A flashing light automatically tells the operator that the mix needs to be added to the mix container or hopper.

Mix Transfer System

A new industry standard for pressurized equipment that is simple to maintain, disassemble, and clean. The mix transfer system meters and injects air and moves mix from the refrigerated cabinet to the freezing cylinder.


Night/Standby Switch

A separate refrigeration control system that holds the product in the freezer at approximately 38° Fahrenheit during periods of non-use.

Non-Fat Yogurt

A yogurt product that was introduced in 1987. The fats have been taken out and are replaced by carbohydrates and stabilizers. The calorie content of non-fat yogurt is about the same as yogurt, but the fat and cholesterol have been eliminated.

Non-Milk Solids

All solids in the soft serve mix that are not dairy-based. These include stabilizers, emulsifiers, and sweeteners.


Items that can be manufactured by the store owner using an Electro Freeze Soft Serve Machine or Slush Machine. Novelties can be made in various shapes and sizes and are usually coated or dipped in toppings. They can be flavored by using fruits, nuts, or candy. They can be individually wrapped and labeled, and sold separately or in prepackaged quantities. Examples include ice cream sandwiches and ice cream pies and cakes. Storeowners often overlook novelties. If displayed and promoted properly, they can become a substantial part of the operation’s profits.



As the mix is frozen, air is introduced into it to increase volume. Overrun is the percentage of the volume that a gallon is increased when air is added. For example, a 50% overrun means that one gallon of liquid mix becomes 1-1/2 gallons of the finished product after air is added.


Powdered Mix

A mix that comes in a non-liquid form. Water is most commonly added to the powdered mix before it is loaded into the soft serve, shake, batch, frozen cocktail, or slush freezer.

Pressurized Freezer

Soft-serve or shake freezers equipped with mix pumps that transfer mix from a container or hopper to the freezing cylinder. As the mix is pumped into these freezers, a controlled amount of air is added to the product. These freezers use the pressure from the pump to force the product from the cylinder when dispensing.



A gas used in refrigeration systems to remove heat. The refrigerant absorbs heat in the evaporator when it vaporizes. The condenser removes the absorbed heat.


Freezers that are constructed with a condensing unit or mix pump located outside the freezer chassis.


Mix that has been frozen and allowed to meltdown for reuse. A re-run is most commonly acquired while cleaning the freezer. Re-run should never be used during the initial start-up. Where health codes allow, re-run should be added to the freezer during high-volume periods during the business day. There is a danger that, if improperly handled, re-run can contaminate fresh mix and lead to poor product quality and high e-coli count.
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Scraper Blade/Blade/Knife

Mounted on and driven by the beater shaft. They scrape the frozen product from the cylinder.


This term is used when condensing units or mix pumps are installed on or in the freezer. Self-contained condensing units and pumps are standard on all Electro Freeze freezers, except Model 30TFR.


A frozen drink that is best when served from an Electro Freeze Shake Unit. Shakes are normally served at 28° Fahrenheit, with 45% – 60% overrun and should allow the customer to sip it through a straw.

Shake Mix

A mix formulated for use in Shake Freezers. These mixes usually contain 2% – 3% butterfat.


A frozen dairy product of 1% or 2% butterfat and various combinations of sugar percentage. Sherbet is also available as a non-fat product, without butterfat and milk solids.


A non-dairy frozen drink containing water, sugar, slush base, and highly concentrated flavoring. Slush is a super cold, non-carbonated drink.


A blended fruit or vegetable shake made with yogurt or non-dairy mix, juice, fruit, frozen vegetables, or other nutrients.


A generic term referring to any frozen dairy product, such as ice cream, custard, or yogurt which is dispensed from a soft serve freezer.


A frozen fruit-flavored mixture, similar to Italian ice, but with milk, egg white, or gelatin added.

Spindle Head

A shake dispensing head with a spindle mixer mounted on it. This allows the operator to dispense a shake and blend a flavor simultaneously.


Stabilizers are added to the mix to keep the size of the ice crystals as small as possible, producing a dry, stiff, smooth product from the freezer. It also helps reduce product meltdown.


Sweeteners lower the freezing point of the mix and add both flavor and body to the frozen product. The most commonly used sweeteners are cane sugar, beet sugar, corn sweeteners, and honey.

Swing Faucet

An option for some hopper model soft-serve and shake freezers. A swing faucet can be factory installed on top of the freezer.

Syrup Cabinet

An option for the four flavor-injected shake freezer. Syrup regulators, tanks, and an optional air pump can be stored in this stainless steel cabinet.


Total Milk Solids

The combined total of the butterfat and non-fat milk solids.

Total Solids

The combined ingredients used to make a mix. The rest of the mix formula is water.

Twist Freezer

Any soft serve freezer that has two freezing cylinders and one dispensing head designed to dispense two flavors individually or combine the two flavors into a single serving.



A cultured product low in fat (usually 2% or less) and sugar. It contains stabilizers, emulsifiers, flavoring, and water. Reduced fat and sugar content requires increased non-fat milk solids to retain total solid content. A quality yogurt is best when served at 18° Fahrenheit and 45% – 60% overrun.

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